Types of Lab Microscopes| Manufacturer and Supplier

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Types of Lab Microscopes:

We can divide the Microscopes in different types according to their shape and working which are:

  • Light Microscopy (LM)
  • Electron Microscopy (EM)

Light Microscopy:

In the light Microscopy we use some different kinds of microscopes with different specifications, which are:

Bright field Microscopes:

Bright field microscopes are general used microscopes with the brightfield, which helps for viewing a dark object. The main specifications of this microscope are:
  • Bright background, dark specimen
  • High N.A., good resolution
  • Ideal for stained bacteria, cells, tissues
  • Light directed at specimen is absorbed toform image
  • Simple design
  • Stained specimens show excellentcontrast
  • tungsten or halogen light source
  • Unstained specimens have poor contrast

Dark field Microscopes (DF):

In the dark field microscope, we can view those objects which are difficult to view in Bright field because of its background. The main specifications of this microscope are:
  • A method from the 19th century
  • Bright specimen, dark background
  • Can see very small objects, but the resolution is variable
  • High contrast, good for unstained, live, and motile specimens
  • Light not scattered by the specimen for making the “field” dark.

Phase Contrast:

It converts the differences in the refractive index of a sample, for changingthe brightness of the image.
  • Good for unstained or live mounts
  • Good for bacteria, flagella, cilia, organelles such as mitochondria
  • Technology from 1940’s
  • Phase halos (artifacts) occur
  • Provides high contrast, good resolution

Polarization Microscopy:

The Polarization Microscopy is used to detectthose specimens, which have the characteristic of double refraction.
  • Bright image, dark background
  • Can be quantitative
  • Used for substances with highly organizedmolecular structure, such as crystals,minerals

Epi-fluorescence Microscopy:

Epi-fluorescence Microscopes are used for the detection of ions and molecules within cells.
  • Black background, bright-stained specimen
  • Detects small quantities, molecules; can use antibody staining techniques
  • High contrast, high resolution image
  • Multiple fluorescent probes available
  • No condenser required, light comes from the above of specimen
  • Special fluorescent dyes used to locate “molecules” in a specimen
  • Uses UV light source = mercury or xenon arc lamp.

Differential Interference Contrast(DIC) Microscopy:

DIC is also known as ‘Normarski optics’ which resembles phase-contrast, but more sensitively and it also provides us higher resolution.
  • Good for unstained specimens, live mounts; can see the membranes within cells
  • Excellent resolution with high contrast
  • Detects changes in refractive index of specimen
  • Produces 3-d images

Confocal laser scanning microscopy:

Confocal laser scanning microscope is a microscope which scans the document by using the  laser light.
  • Can be used in reflectance or fluorescence mode
  • Eliminates background interference
  • High resolution, sharp image
  • High sensitivity
  • Krypton/argon laser

Electron Microscopy:

The two most common types of Electron Microscopes are:

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

In Scanning Electron Microscopy a fixeddry specimenisstraddling on stumps and the surface is coated withrhodium, palladium or gold.
  • Electron beam is focused using a magnetic field
  • Gives information about the external topography of the specimen
  • Much higher resolution and magnification than possible in LM
  • SEM provides a 3-D image

Transmission Electron Microscopy:

In TEM the dehydrated specimens are embedded in a sectioned and stained with the heavy metals, which are inserted into the electron column of the microscope.
  • 2-D image
  • electron beam is focused by magnetic field
  • high resolution, high magnification
  • reveals internal cell structure

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