What is Consolidation | Apparatus Manufacturers and Suppliers

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What is Consolidation?

The gradual volume reduction in the saturated clay soil of low permeability makes a change in pressure (load). Which creates excess pore water pressure and the water is squeezed out of the soil very slowly due to low permeability settlement which occurs over long time periods resulting the consolidation process.
The amount of settlement depends on the following things:
  • Permeability of the soil
  • Length of the drainage path
  • Compressibility of the soil

Terms and symbols of Consolidation:

Here we have some Terms and symbols which are very helpful in Consolidation Process:
  • The flow of groundwater in a saturated soil is denoted by Seepage.
  • q = rate of seepage flow
  • We must also measure the difference between current pore pressure (u) and the steady state pore pressure (uo). This difference is known as excess pore pressure.
  • Excess pore pressure= u - uo
  • Permeability (k) relates to flow in a given direction, i.e. along a given drainage path.
  • The difference in total head between two points in the soil is the Hydraulic gradient (i).

One-dimensional consolidation:

Usually when we are joining a three-dimensional flow vector, then it is very complex in nature which is valid for a very short and Particular range of problems in Geotechnical engineering. It is necessary to consider that both the seepage and strains take place in only one direction only for the vast majority of practical settlement problems. Usually in this kind of programs the direction of the dimension should be vertical.
Variables of One-dimensional consolidation:
  • The excess pore pressure
  • The depth of the element in the layer (z)
  • The time elapsed since the application of the loading (t)


  • Consolidometer with a loading device
  • Desiccator
  • Dial gauge, accuracy 0.002mm
  • Large container
  • Oven
  • Porous stones
  • Pressure pad
  • Specimen ring made of a non-corroding material
  • Steel ball
  • Water content cans
  • Water reservoir to saturate the sample
  • Weighing balance, accuracy 0.01 g
  • Soil trimming tools like fine wire saw, knife, spatula, etc.

Consolidation Test Apparatus Manufacturer and Suppliers:

We are Consolidation Test Apparatus Manufacturers and Suppliers. You can visit the official website aticoexport.com for more information related to Soil Testing Lab Equipment.We also have the entire range of Civil Engineering Instruments.

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